Chronology of facts arround the Portuguese Schnitger Organs by António Mendes Melo
1622: The new construction of the medieval (01) Monastery of
St. Salvador of Moreira (Maia, near Porto) - from the Canons Order of St. Cross
of Coimbra.- that began in 1584, is ready. This renovation is made with the king
Philip II also in other monasteries of the same religious order (St. Vicente de
Fora, in Lisbon, St. Salvador de Grijó, near Porto) in according to the
mannerist model of the Spanish St. Lorenzo del Escorial (near Madrid).
The great organist of the Spanish Chapel of Philip II was António de Cabezon (1510 - 1566) (02)
The great Portuguese organists in this moment are: Duarte Lobo (1565-1646), Filipe Magalhães (1563-1652), Manuel Rodrigues Coelho (1573 -1633), the Carmelite friar Manuel Cardoso (1566-1650), the canon Pedro Esperança (1595-1660) and João Lourenço Rebelo (1610-1667).
The Canons of St. Cross of Coimbra have a great culture and musical traditions: Heliodoro Paiva, Agostinho da Cruz (1590-1633), Pedro de Cristo (1545-1618), Diogo da Cruz (1628), Pedro Esperança (1595-1670), Gabriel de S. João (1624), Baptista de S. João (1603), etc.
1637: Birth of Dietrich Buxtehude (1637-1707), the great organ composer of the north of Germany (before J.S. Bach), organist at Lübeck.
1640: End of the Spanish dominion of Portugal. John IV of the Bragança House, "the Prince of Music", is the new Portuguese King.
1641: Treaty between Portugal and Holland.
1643: Death of the organist of St. Peter in Rome, Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643). Pupil is Johan Jacob Froberger (1616-1667) living in Vienna.
1648: Arp Schnitger is Birth of in Schmalenfleth by Golzwarden at the Unterweser in the Oldenburger country (actual Lower-Saxony, Germany). Baptised on 2. July.
1653: Birth of at Nuremberg Johan Pachelbel (1653-1706) the great organ composer of the south of Germany (before J.S. Bach).
1656: The king John IV, dies. His widow, Phillipa de Guzman, becomes regent of Portugal.
1660: Charles II becomes king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He made alliance with France against Holland and was tolerant with Catholics. Christopher Gibbons (1615 - 1676) becomes organist at the Royal Chapel and later on at the Westminster Abbey. John Blow (1649 - 1702) formed at the Royal Chapel becomes also organist at the Westminster Abbey. Henry Purcell (1659 - 1695) also was vocalist, curator of musical instruments and, at last, composer at the Royal Chapel.
1661: Marriage of Catharina, daughter of John IV, with Charles II of England: bullfight in Lisbon. In London, Matthew Locke (1622 - 1677) becomes the organist of the Catholic Chapel of the Queen Catharina.
1662: In Portugal, the brother of Catharina, becomes the king Alfonso VI (1662-1667), but he renounces after five years. Pedro de Araújo is organist and professor at the Braga Cathedral and Seminar (1662-1668). Arp Schnitger is teaching as a carpenter with its father.
1666: Great fire in London. The architect Wren design new projects for 60 churches in London. Arp Schnitger becomes a pupil in the organ workshop of his uncle Berendt Huss in Glückstadt (Unterelbe) as an apprentice.
1667: Alfonso VI renounce the throne. His brother Pedro II (1667-1706), becomes regent of Portugal. Death of the organist Johan Jacob Froberger. He has diffuse the style Frescobaldi in the south of Germany and Austria.
1668: Marriage of Pedro II, regent of Portugal, with Maria Francisca of Saboia, cousin of Louis XIV of France. Treaty of peace with Spain. Birth of François Couperin (1668-1733), the organist of St. Gervais, Maubisson Abbey and Royal Chapel of France. Composer of "Pièces dorgue consistantes".
1671: Louis XIV of France accept to be sponsor in the baptism of Isabel Louise, daughter of D. Pedro II. The queen Catharina of England does not accept. Alliance of Spain, Austria and Holland against France. England makes peace with Holland.
1672: Birth of Nicolas de Grigny (1672 - 1703), organist of the Reims Cathedral, composer of the "Livre de Musique" important instrument of teaching in the classes that J.S. Bach have with George Böhm (North Germany)
1676: Death of Arp Schnitgers teacher Berendt Huss. First independent activity from Arp Schnitger: he completes the large organ in the Wilhaldikirche in Stade and 7 organs for which Huss was contracted. The most important organs from this early workperiod are in Cappel and Lüdingworth. Pedro II, regent of Portugal try the peace between Spain and France.
1678: Guilherme III de Naussau-Orange, stadhouder of the United Provinces (Calvinists) preserve the integrity of Holland by the treaty of Nijmegen with Louis XIV of France. In London, John Blow becomes master of Choirs of the new St. Pauls Cathedral. Henry Purcell becomes organist at Westminster Abbey.
1680: Beginning of the baroque carved works in the interior of the St. Francisco Convent of Porto (1680-1780)
1682: The workshop of Arp Schnitger was moved to Hamburg, as consequence of the job for building the organ in the Nicolai church, the largest new organ with 67 registers.
1683: Death of Alfonso VI and of the queen Maria Francisca de Saboia. Pedro II becomes king of Portugal. New prime minister.
1684: At the lawyer's chapel, in London, an organ is delivered by the German organbuilder Bernhardt Smith (known us "father" Smith) after an experiment by John Blow and Henry Purcell. Henry Purcell becomes also harpsichordist of the private Camera of the King Charles II. Marriage of Arp Schnitger with Gertrud Otte (1665 1707) out of Hamburg.
1685: Death of Charles II of England. The new king is his soon James II (1685 - 1688), that becomes catholic and allied of Louis XIV of France. Birth of Johan Sebastian Bach (1685-1750): he studies Buxtehude and Grigny (North German School), Frescobaldi and Pachelbel (South German School) and made a synthesis of the two German schools of organ.Birth of Doménico Scarlatti (1685-1757): organist and composer at St. Peter in Rome and at the Royal Chapels of Naples, Lisbon and Madrid. Birth of Georg Friedrich Händel (1685-1759): organist and composer in Halle, Hamburg, Rome, Venezia, Hannover and London. The organist Michael Hensberg comes from Brussels to Porto and works in this town between 1685 and 1700.
1687: Marriage of the Portuguese king Pedro II in Heidelberg with the princess palatine Mary Sophie Isabel of Neuburg, sister of the empress of Austria and sister of the queen Mary Anne Neuburg of Spain: there was Italian opera in Heidelberg and pyrotechnic fire in Lisbon.
1688: Birth of the Arp Schnitgers son Hans (1688-1708). This son later on died in Ochsenwerder when swimming in the Elbe.
1689: Guilherme III de Naussau-Orange, stadhouder of the United Provinces (1672-1702) dethrone James II (he went to France) and becomes Guilherme III of England, Scotland and Ireland (1689-1702) and the leader of an European alliance against Louis XIV of France.
1690: Death of Maria Louise, daughter of Pedro II.Birth of Arp Schnitgers son Johann Jürgen (1690 -?) that co-operated some years with its brother Franz Caspar, before his tracks lose themselves. A little Arp Schnitger organ arrive to England.
1693: Acquisition of the Arp Schnitgers "organbuilderfarm" in Hamburg-Neuenfelde from the possession of his father-in-law Hans Otte. In Neuenfelde a part of the organ workshop was since 1705. Birth of Arp Schnitger's son Franz Caspar (1693-1729). He worked as an organbuilder of high reputation in the Netherlands and build the important organs in Zwolle, Alkmaar and Groningen;
1694: The queen Catharina, widow from Charles II of England, comes to Portugal and begins the construction of his residence in Lisbon, the "Bemposta Palace and Chapel" (the actual Military Academy) with project of João Antunes. The organ of the St. Cross of Coimbra Monastery is restored by Miguel Hensberg (from Porto).
1697: Luis XIV of France recognise the authority of Guilherme III of England by the treaty of Ryswick.Birth of Arp Schnitger daughter Catharina (1697-1736) died in Neuenfelde.
1698: Discovery of gold at Minas Gerais (Brazil) In London, Amsterdam and Hamburg there are Portuguese Jewish merchants. In Porto several merchants have maritime trade with London, Amsterdam and Hamburg: Pedro Henkel, Samuel Palmer, Johann Van Zeller, Nicolas Van der Horst and others.
1699: The Portuguese queen Sophie of Neuburg dies: sepulchre in the Royal Pantheon of the São Vicente de Fora Monastery (Lisbon). Francisco Vaz, father of Carlos Seixas, is organist at the Coimbra Cathedral between 1699 and 1718.
1700 - Baroque carved works at the S. João Novo Augustins Convent (Porto). The organbuilder Franciscus Josephus Vogel work at Coimbra Universitys Chapel.
1701: The German artist Johan Friedrich Luduvic comes from Rome to Lisbon. The "Architect of Pedro II" in Rome, Carlo Fontana, work in the portic of "St. Maria in Trastevere" and in the palace of "St. Micael in Ripa". Charles II of Spain die. Philippe d' Anjou becomes Philippe V of Spain. Alliance of England, Holland, Austria, Prussia, Denmark, Hannover, Palatinate, in behalf of the archduke Charles of Austria and against Philippe d' Anjou (France and Spain). Portugal remain out because England have not accepted the Portuguese conditions. Siwert Meijer, organist in Groningen (1817-1877) said that Arp Schnitger send to Portugal in 1701 two organs, each one with 12 registers, 2 manuals and 1 breath.
1702: Guilherme III of England, Scotland and Ireland dies without sons. The new queen of England is Ana Stuart (1702 - 1714). In Lisbon, the "Royal Chapel of Bemposta", of the Queen Catharina, is ready. The organist is António José do Espírito Santo.
1703: Treaty of Methuen between England and Portugal (exchange of wines by textiles). England accept the conditions of 1701 and Portugal adhere to the Alliance.
1704: The archduke of Austria debarks in Portugal and the Portuguese army go to Madrid, dethrone Phillipe d' Anjou and the archduke is acclaimed as Charles III of Spain. Birth of the great Portuguese composer Carlos Seixas (1704-1742)
1705: The English queen Catharina dies: sepulchre in the Royal Pantheon of the São Vicente de Fora Monastery (Lisbon)
1706: The Portuguese king Pedro II die (1706): sepulchre in the Royal Pantheon of the São Vicente de Fora Monastery (Lisbon). But is heart is in the church of a Flemish woman monastery in Lisbon: Nossa Senhora da Quietação ou do Livramento. The São Vicente de Fora Monastery is from the same religious order (Canons of St. Cross of Coimbra) than São Salvador de Moreira Monastery (Maia, 10 km from Porto). The Portuguese histories of music said that, during the time of Pedro II (1667-1706), the music leave in an nobody land, between the Iberian baroque and the late advent of the new Italian models (opera, cantata) with the king Johan V). But this new models come slow.
1707: The new king Johan V (1706-1750) gives the "Bemposta Palace" to is brother Francisco (House of infants). The Infant Francisco gives any houses and the "Conceição Chapel" near the "Bemposta Palace" to the "Observant Franciscans Province", with the head seat at the Conceição Convent (Leça da Palmeira, near the S. Salvador de Moreira Monastery). The Franciscans have made there an hospice. At 9 June, a great fire in the S. Francis Convent (Lisbon) destroy two organs (one of them, the greater, "was special and very appreciated by the court". Death of Arp Schnitgers first wife Gertrud Otte.
1708: Marriage of the Portuguese king Johan V with Mary Anne of Austria. The English merchants in Lisbon offer several "Triumphal Arcs". With Johan V, the Royal Chapel becomes with 120 Gregorian vocalists, 70 polyphonic vocalists and 4 organists.
1710: The Italian painter Vicente Bacarelli work in the S. Vicente de Fora Monastery.
1712: The S. Francis Convent (Lisbon) contracts Arp Schnitger's pupil, John Henriquez Hulenkamp, to make an organ with 2 sections, 20 registers and 3 bellows, better than the organ of "Misericórdia" (Old Conceição Church). At S. Francis Convent (Lisbon) the Portuguese artist, Santos Pacheco, work at the lateral chapels. Death of Arp Schnitger soon Arp der Jüngere (1665-1712) in Hamburg at the plague epidemic disease.
1713: Marriage of Arp Schnitger with Anna Elizabeth Koch, born as Diekmann. She was the widow of the organist in Abbehausen (in the country Oldenburg).
1715: At the Cathedral of Faro there are works on the choir and delivered is an organ with 18 registers by Arp Schnitger's pupil, John Henriquez Hulenkamp.
1716: Thomaz Almeida, ancient bishop of Porto, becomes the 1st Patriarch of Lisbon (1716-1754). The most important musicians of his Chapel was João Rodrigues Esteves and Francisco Antonio Almeida. New sacristy at S.Vicente de Fora Monastery by the Portuguese José Luis Tinoco.
1717: Beginning of the construction of the great Franciscan Covent of Mafra. Johan Frederic Ludovic work in Mafra Covent (1717-1730).
1718: Carlos Seixas, with 14 years, after the death of his father, becomes the new organist at the Coimbra Cathedral
1719: Death of Arp Schnitger. Funeral on 29. July in the church of Neuenfelde, where today still stands at the right of the altar his bank with his coat of arms. Doménico Scarlatti comes to Lisbon (from Rome) and becomes the master of the Portuguese Royal Chapel (1719-1729) and after of the Spanish Royal Chapel.
1720: Carlos Seixas, with 16 years, comes to Lisbon, to be organist (Graça Augustin's Convent and Royal Chapel) and harpsichordist of the king Johan V (1720-1740). Johan Frederic Ludovic becomes master of works in S. Vicente de Fora Monastery.
1721: Contract between the Carmelite Convent (Lisbon) and Johan Henriquez Hulenkamp, resident at the street of "canons", in Lisbon, for an organ with 22 registers by the (with the financial support of the king John V) Contract for a positive organ between the Lordelo Church (Porto) and Gabriel de St. Teotóneo, canon of "Serra do Pilar Monastery", near Porto (St. Cross Canons Order)
1722: The Pope Inocencio XIII said that the Lisbon Patriarch Cathedral its the most important of the world. 1st little earthquake.
1723: Beginning of the Italian music models at the S. Vicente de Fora Monastery (Lisbon).
1725: The organist Teodosio Hemberg works in Porto between 1725 and 1748.
1729: Giovanni Giorgi comes from the Franciscan school of Gregorian chant at the Stª Catharina Covent (Ericeira, near Mafra) to the Royal Chapel (in substitution of Domenico Scarlatti).
1730: The first organs comes by sea from Génova to the Mafra Covent. The book "Cerimonial", from the Franciscan Manuel da Conceição, describe the two qualities of the Iberian organ music: "gravity and ostentation". Baroque carved works in the interior of the S. Salvador de Moreira Monastery (Maia, near Porto). Birth of Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
1736: The Infant Francisco order an architectural renovation (Italian models) at the "Bemposta Palace and Chapel" (House of Infants), in Lisbon, by the Portuguese artist Manuel Costa Negreiros. The Chapel is completely new. And order the restoring of the "Conceição Chapel" near the "Bemposta Palace" in conformity to the model of the "Our Lady of Arrábida" Chapel (from the Franciscan Convent near Lisbon). The works in the "Conceição Chapel" (known also as "St. Antonio da Carreira") was ready in 1744. This chapel have a little choir .
1739: Six organs in the Franciscan Mafra Convent.
1740: Architectural renovation (Italian models) at the Augustin's Convent of Graça (Lisbon) by the Portuguese artist Mateus Vicente Oliveira.
1741: Great fire at the S. Francis Convent (Lisbon), but the church is not burned (the Hulenkamp's organ of 1712 probably continue the same). Begining of the reconstruction of the Convent (with the financial support of the king John V) Death of the organist and composer Carlos Seixas.
1743: Death of Fr. Clemente da Cruz (1685-1743), a Franciscan organist of Lisbon. An organbuilder of Algarve adds 2 registers (Trombeta Batalha + Clarim) to the organ of Faro Cathedral
1745: At the Augustin´s Convent of Penafirme (Torres Vedras, near Lisbon) an organ is delivered by the Portuguese Johan Cunha. Birth of the Portuguese composer João de Sousa Carvalho (1745-1800)
1747: The king John V, offer an organ to the Bishop of Mariana (Minas Gerais, Brazil).
1748: At the Augustin´s Convent of Boa Hora (today, the Criminal Court of Lisbon) and at the St. Paul Church of Almada (near Lisbon) organs are delivered by the Portuguese Johan Cunha.
1750: The king John V die. The new king Joseph I (1750-1777) choice for 1st Minister the Marquis of Pombal, Sebastian Carvalho e Melo, ancient diplomat in London and Vienna. The project of a new "College of Nobles" is prepared by the architect Charles Mardel.
1752: An organ from a Franciscan convent (Lisbon, Mafra, or Ribamar?) promised by the king John V to the Mariana Cathedral (Minas Gerais, Brazil) and by order of the king Joseph I, is dispatched to Mariana by the organbuilder Johan Cunha.
1755: Great earthquake of Lisbon. Destruction connected with this history:
175: In a report about the destructions of the Great earthquake of Lisbon, Antonio Tomaz de Sousa inform that in the Royal Chapel of Bemposta, there is a Choir with 20 vocalists
1760: The Irish organbuilder Eugene Nicholas Egan work for the king Joseph I;
1764: Notice of the Portuguese and Spanish parnassian club in Hamburg.
1767: The organ of the Faro Cathedral is restored by the Italian organbuilder Pascoal Caetano Oldovini.
1770: The Spanish organbuilder Johan Fontana, who worked at St. Vicente de Fora Monastery, dies in Mafra. Great works in the Lisbon Cathedral. The Patriarch change to the S. Vicente de Fora Monastery.
1771: Because of the Lisbon earthquake, the king change the "College of Nobles" to the Mafra Convent and put the Canons (from S. Salvador de Moreira, and other monasteries that are closed) in the administration and teaching of the College. The Franciscans go out (1771 - 1792).
1777: The king Joseph I dies. The new queen Maria I change the Prime Minister Pombal. The Royal Chapel is the first (?) of Europe. Begins the neo-classical architecture.
1778: The organ of the Royal Chapel of Bemposta is changed to the Royal Chapel of Queluz. The organ of the St: Luzia Church is changed to the Royal Chapel of Bemposta.
1792: Canons come back from Mafra Convent to their monasteries. Franciscans return to Mafra Convent.
1833: Destruction of the cloister by a fire at the S. Francisco Convent of Porto. Construction in this place of the "Stock Exchange and Commerce Court Palace"
1834: The Monasteries and Convents are sold. Only the churches remained with religious services. The religious orders are dissolved.
1860: Restauration of the organ in Grilos Church (Porto), by António José dos Santos
1867: Restauration of the organ in S. João Novo (Porto), by António José dos Santos
1868: New organ in S. João da Foz Church (Porto), by António José dos Santos
1873: New organ in S. Francisco Church (Porto), by António José dos Santos